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Genet Asefa Gesese, Russa Biswas, Mehwish Alam, Harald Sack · Published 2022
Knowledge Graphs (KGs) are composed of structured information about a particular domain in the form of entities and relations. In addition to the structured information KGs help in facilitating interconnectivity and interoperability between different resources represented in the Linked Data Cloud. KGs have been used in a variety of applications such as entity linking, question answering, recommender systems, etc. However, KG applications suffer from high computational and storage costs. Hence, there arises the necessity for a representation able to map the high dimensional KGs into low dimensional spaces, i.e., embedding space, preserving structural as well as relational information. This paper conducts a survey of KG embedding models which not only consider the structured information contained in the form of entities and relations in a KG but also the unstructured information represented as literals such as text, numerical values, images, etc. Along with a theoretical analysis and comparison of the methods proposed so far for generating KG embeddings with literals, an empirical evaluation of the different methods under identical settings has been performed for the general task of link prediction.
Mojtaba Nayyeri, Chengjin Xu, Jens Lehmann, Sahar Vahdati · Published 2022
Knowledge Graph Embeddings (KGEs) have shown promising performance on link prediction tasks by mapping the entities and relations from a knowledge graph into a geometric space (usually a vector space). Ultimately, the plausibility of the predicted links is measured by using a scoring function over the learned embeddings (vectors). Therefore, the capability in preserving graph characteristics including structural aspects and semantics highly depends on the design of the KGE, as well as the inherited abilities from the underlying geometry. Many KGEs use the flat geometry which renders them incapable of preserving complex structures and consequently causes wrong inferences by the models. To address this problem, we propose a neuro differential KGE that embeds nodes of a KG on the trajectories of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). To this end, we represent each relation (edge) in a KG as a vector field on a smooth Riemannian manifold. We specifically parameterize ODEs by a neural network to represent various complex shape manifolds and more importantly complex shape vector fields on the manifold. Therefore, the underlying embedding space is capable of getting various geometric forms to encode complexity in subgraph structures with different motifs. Experiments on synthetic and benchmark dataset as well as social network KGs justify the ODE trajectories as a means to structure preservation and consequently avoiding wrong inferences over state-of-the-art KGE models.
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